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1857 Mountain Meadows Massacre
OSTEOLOGY DATA
 


Most current data, as of 7 Sept 2000, on the human osteology from the 1999 emergency recovery at the mass burial site at the Mountain Meadows Massacre Site.

  • Misc. Fragments not identifiable by element-
  • Long Bone and Rib Fragments: 1330
  • Irregular bone fragments: 70

Indeterminate (non-diagnostic) bone fragments: 3537 (These are mostly very small fragments that can not be identified)

The following are numbers for whole and fragmentary identifiable elements-

  • Cranial-Mandible: 20
  • Maxilla: 36
  • Temporal: 35
  • Frontal: 18
  • Occipital: 37
  • Parietal: 100+
  • Sphenoid: 65
  • Nasal: 5
  • Zygomatic: 5
  • Indeterminate vault fragments: 300+
  • Loose teeth: 151
  • Crania greater than 50% reconstructed: 5
  • Crania less than 50% reconstructed: 9
  • Post Cranial (all elements exclusive of the skull)-
  • Scapula: 73
  • Clavicles: 28
  • Humerus: 75
  • Ulna: 39
  • Radius: 40
  • Hand bones: 22
  • Vertebrae: 124
  • Ribs: 259
  • Inomminate (Pelvis): 51
  • Sacrum: 1
  • Femur: 76
  • Tibia: 57
  • Fibula: 40
  • Indeterminate long bones: 246

Demographics-

Minimum number of individuals (MMI): Based on cranial - 21

Based on post cranial - 28

Eighteen discrete individuals identified and partially reconstructed

Sub-adults or children: 4

Young adults: 11

Older adults: 3

Sex: 10 males, 2 probable males, 2 females, 4 individuals of indeterminate sex

Stature (average): Males 5'5" (164.6cm), Females 4'11" (148.0cm)

Perimortem trauma: 17 individuals exhibit violent trauma (13 cases of cranial trauma)

6 crania exhibit gunshot entrance wounds

2 crania exhibit gunshot exit wounds

6 crania exhibit blunt force trauma
 


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